Wednesday, August 26, 2020
George Robert Twelves Hewes papers George Hewes was conceived in Boston in 1742 yet moved to New York when he was eight. Naturally introduced to a poor family with his father kicking the bucket of a stroke at an exceptionally youthful age, his mother was the sole supporter of the house. From the earliest starting point, plainly he was bound to be built up into a low social class for he didnt have anything going for him. He wasnt' tall nor huge so the main employment he could do was to make shoes. Later when he would need to battle in the war, he couldn't on the grounds that his physical sculpture. He was placed into the shoemakin business by his mother beause she felt he wasn't fit for doin whatever else. Nobody else in his family had done something besides exchanging or employments of such kind. This made Hewes appear to have a solid or prevailing character. He was what Bostonians called 'saucy'; he was consistently in Dutch (575). He mother was extremely controlling of him which would later impact the manner in whic h he reacted to power. Abigail Hewes more likely than not been frantic to control George. This announcement alludes to how Abigail would rebuff George intensely for the most diminutive things. Youthful deciphers this as an approach to keep her child in line or control him from wandering from the family. As George Hewes got more seasoned, more Americans were opposing Britain's decision. England started to burden the urban areas' more on things that appeared to be superfluous to the individuals. Hewes still was a shoemaker as a grown-up male so that didnt assist him with climbing into a higher social class. As per Young, Somewhere in the range of 1768 and 1775, the shoemaker turned into a resident a functioning member in the occasions that prompted the Revolution, a furious, self-assured man who won acknowledgment as a nationalist (585). This statement states much about Hewes character. For a mind-blowing duration, numerous individuals attempted to step on and exploit him, however this didn't get him down. Regardless of how individuals rewarded him, he despite everything gave them regard and would not act hurriedly or in demonstrate hatred for. In one example... <!
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Kublai Khan - Essay Example As Emperor, Khan started an advantageous connection between the Chinese and the Mongols, advancing a country of resilience and multifaceted communication that took into account a prospering of different expressions just as battle ready may. He practiced both military and political sagacious in his activities, which added to an effective unification of the two essential people groups of his domain. KublaiÃ¢â¬â¢s force, military and political achievement authenticates his military insight and brave. He was a resilient man who got procedure and had the capacity to order regard and submission from his subjects and individuals, administering with a solid hand when fundamental and advancing resilience whenever the situation allows. It was in this last nature that he picked up maybe his most enduring commitments, however it is likewise that impulse that by and by prompted his defeat. In spite of the fact that he likely would not have been as fruitful as he might have been, had he not had political insight and dexterity, his impulses were regularly towards extravagance of this inclination. He surely knew the significant significance of obliging the Chinese larger part, and hence took on Chinese guides and authorities just as tried maintaining significant Chinese conventions, social qualities, and managerial practices. He directed every one of his mistresses, children, little girls, and all the imperial relatives to embrace the Han culture and get the Chinese language and customs. Therefore, the new China prospered under KublaiÃ¢â¬â¢s rule and encountered a substantial rebuilding of political arrangement. Be that as it may, in spite of the fact that Kublai Khan conquered numerous troubles and boundaries and at last accomplished what he tried to do, at long last he turned into a frustrated and beset man. Through the battles to persuade his own traditionalist Mongol people group of the requirement for the resilience he advanced with the Chinese culture, he was progres sively disconnected and baffled toward an amazing finish. The two his military and political quality depicts his ability for authority and just as his capacity to appropriately run a country and permit it to thrive, yet his own disappointments and thoughts in the end left forlorn and disenthralled. In this article, his commitments and heritage will be checked on so as to see this in more profundity. Family Background and Early Beginnings Genghis Khan, KublaiÃ¢â¬â¢s granddad, joined a large number of the itinerant clans of upper east Asia and in that manner established the Mongol Empire. As Paul Ratchenevsky composes, the migrant clans in their region were inexactly connected ancestral gatherings who might make more grounded yet at the same time brief confederations at whatever point some local reason called for it. Such purposes frequently include war, however these were customarily wars of a guarded sort. The inborn groups would meet up at whatever point an outside power represen ted some approaching peril, yet their requirement for portability as itinerant people groups commonly denied any more grounded or additionally enduring affiliations due to the idea of their ways of life. Genghis Khan, through power of character and visionary initiative figured out how to join these clans and start hostile wars that permitted the domain to extend across Asia. In the end, he started numerous attacks inside Eurasia, in this way expanding the range and effect of his domain. In these manners, he was to be copied by his grandson, with a blend of nonexistent and magnetic initiative that prompted the foundation of more noteworthy domains. Through the impact of Genghis Khan,
Thursday, August 13, 2020
MIT women Ive noticed, in my travels around the country and the internet, that people are really interested in the experience of female students at MIT. I was asked several times at my grad school interviews how the environment was for female students, and whether I had experienced discrimination as an MIT woman. Ill say right up front although I do understand why people are interested in this question, I find it decidedly odd sort of like someone asking, So, hows the oxygen situation in Cambridge? Is there enough air for everybody to breathe? Just as Ive never noticed a shortage of breathable O2, Ive never experienced discrimination as a female MIT student. I think the reason this question comes to mind are severalfold 1. The School of Science report. Several years ago, female faculty in the School of Science reported that they were discriminated against for their gender. MIT investigated and found that they were, and began taking steps to remedy the situation. 2. The Larry Summers thing. 3. The fact that MIT is a science and engineering school, and even progressive people have this weird mental roadblock against women who get excited about test tubes and servos. Hey, Ive been there. I went to public school in a small-to-medium-sized town in Ohio, and although I had my share of inspiring science teachers, I also had one or two who wondered aloud why a girl would be interested in majoring in science. Im going to graduate school in biology at a time when a lot of my friends from high school are getting married. Its a weird thing to be a female scientist in the world, I guess. But its not a weird thing to be a female scientist at MIT. And while there are more female scientists than female engineers at MIT, its also not a weird thing to be a female engineer here. Majors on the MIT cheerleading squad this year: civil/environmental engineering, mechanical engineering, materials science and engineering, EECS, biology, physics, brain and cognitive sciences, chemical engineering, EAPS, management, mathematics. Yup, those are our cheerleaders. Personally speaking, I like to say that the only discrimination Ive ever faced as an MIT woman is that all the chairs in the microscope room in my lab are too short for me to see into the eyepiece. And all the coats in the mouse room button the guy way. Ive never had my intelligence questioned or my opinion discarded because of my gender people at MIT just arent like that. As long as youre smart and good at what you do, nobody cares whether youre male or female. Well, except maybe people who want to date you. They might care. There are several different ways female students at MIT look at their female-ness. Theres the group, typified by this editorial (written by Cassi Hunt 08), that basically says, Yeah, Im a woman, so what? Then theres the group, represented by this editorial (by my friend Rose 05), thats more Sure, women are treated pretty well here, but things can always get better, so lets work toward that end. Some women at MIT join groups like the Society of Women Engineers or the Association for Women Students (Bryan and Mitra is it still active now that Rose has graduated?); some people take courses in Womens Studies, join sororities, or go to the regular coffee and snacks events for women at MIT. For those who are interested, there are a lot of resources for female students at MIT various student groups, and even an entire suite of women-only rooms on main campus. As far as living groups go, McCormick is all-female (and one of the nicest dorms on campus), and there are all-female suites or sections in many of the other dorms. Personally, Im more in the Im a woman, so what? camp. Ive never joined any of the womens clubs at MIT, and Im not one of the ~25% of MIT women who joined a sorority. I live in a co-ed suite in a co-ed dorm. And while Id encourage prospective women to consider using these resources, its okay if you dont want to. For many of us, our gender doesnt go very far in defining who we are as students. Any other questions on what its like to be an [x] at MIT? Or questions in general? I know lots of you are questionful, and Ill get to some answers next time I check in. EDIT: I stuck a really super, and I think really relevant, poem relating to this issue in my Athena locker. Hey, who says MIT kids dont appreciate poetry?
Saturday, May 23, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Death is not the enemy doctor. Inhumanity isÃ¢â¬ (Rebman 5.) This quote was said by 78 year old Eli Kahn. He placed on a respirator machine in order to keep him alive but against his wishes. Eli Kahn was among countless people in this world that face an inevitable death who are not given the choice of preventing the pain and suffering. Euthanasia is a word that most people avoid because it is very controversial. But why? Euthanasia is a way of ending the prolonging of suffering, while leaving life in peace. Euthanasia is derived from the Greeks where Eu means good and Thanatos means death. When these phrases are combined the word euthanasia is created; meaning Ã¢â¬Å"good deathÃ¢â¬ (6.) There are three types of euthanasia although only twoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The Hemlock Society was formed by Dereck Humphry in 1980 and now has over 27,000 members. This Society works to change legislation in favor of euthanasia while offering support for personÃ¢â¬â¢ s contemplating euthanasia. They also produce publications about euthanasia subjects in order to better educate the public (18.) The second organization, the Euthanasia Society of America, was formed in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s and is dedicated to bring euthanasia cases out into the public eye (16.) A man by the name of Dr. Kevorkian is unrelated to the Euthanasia Society of America but also strived to bring euthanasia issues into the public. He has assisted in over 100 deaths through euthanasia to terminally ill patients. One of his patients, Thomas Youk suffered from a very severe and painful case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. He found Dr. Kevorkian who helped him peacefully pass away and end his long time suffering. Kevorkian has also shown a way that euthanasia patients can also benefit those who are ill but do not want to choose euthanasia. After the death of aShow MoreRelatedEuthanasia Persuasive Essay1064 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAn Avoidable Loss Death by choice or euthanasia is a very controversial subject that is typically one-sided. The very concept of death alone is somewhat a taboo, but controlling death itself is another monster. Death by choice or Ã¢â¬Å"euthanasiaÃ¢â¬ should not be legalized because it promotes defeatism, may lead to the strict procedures to become more accessible to people with non-fatal illnesses, could legitimize murder, or pressure the elderly. When an unfortunate illness befalls, people have a tendencyRead MorePersuasive Essay Pro Euthanasia954 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGrace (JiEun) Lee AP Language and composition Persuasive essay 6 October 2017 Euthanasia legalization The ultimate value of life depends upon awareness and the power of contemplation rather than upon mere survival. Aristotle Being one of the most fervid and controversial topic of all, euthanasia, also known as physician-assisted suicide, has initiated a very sensitive discussion on life and death under oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to choose either side. Euthanasia is defined as a Ã¢â¬Å"the act or practice of killingRead MorePersuasive Essay on Euthanasia963 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEuthanasia - The Right to Decide The definition of euthanasia from the Oxford Dictionary is: Ã¢â¬Å"The painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or is in an incurable coma.Ã¢â¬ Consider the words Ã¢â¬Å"suffering,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"painful,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"irreversibleÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"incurable.Ã¢â¬ These words describe a patients terrible conditions and prospects. Euthanasia is known as Ã¢â¬Å"mercy killingÃ¢â¬ for a reason, it is the most, humane, moral and logical form of treatment available to patients that have no hopeRead MorePersuasive Essay On Euthanasia811 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEuthanasia In present society Euthanasia is a very controversial topic and must be addressed carefully and thoughtfully out of the respect of others. It is a topic that for those who are undecided on what side to pick really do not know which way to swing until it impacts their life. Euthanasia roughly translates into Ã¢â¬Å"a good deathÃ¢â¬ , so for those who chose to end their life by their own decision, and without them having to deal with pain or the inevitable long incurable diseases, thenRead MorePersuasive Essay On Euthanasia973 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEuthanasia, more commonly known as mercy killing, is the action of killing someone in order to end their suffering. This is a way for patients with terminal illnesses to die a peaceful death rather than a painful one; however, it is illegal throughout most of the United States. People have debated for many years whether or not Euthanasia in people should be legal. In the Bible, Exodus 20:13 states that Ã¢â¬Å"Thou shalt not kill.Ã¢â¬ This verse brings people to believe that mercy killing is an act of defianceRead MorePersuasive Essay Euthanasia1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEuthanasia: A Legal Murder According the Merriam-Webster dictionary, Euthanasia is Ã¢â¬Å"the act or practice of killing or permitting the death of hopelessly sick or injured individuals (such as persons or domestic animals) in a relatively painless way for reasons of mercy. This procedure seems appealing to the many people around the world who suffer from terminal illnesses. In the minds of these people euthanasia or doctor-assisted suicide seems like the only escape. As stated in a journal, Ã¢â¬Å"My friendRead MorePersuasive Essay On Euthanasia1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswould that answer change if you were suffering? Euthanasia, also known as Ã¢â¬Å"good death,Ã¢â¬ is the act of putting a living thing to death painlessly or allowing them to die by withholding extreme medical practices, such as withholding food. Then there is involuntary euthanasia: Ã¢â¬Å"a competent personÃ¢â¬â¢s life is brought to an end despite an explicit rejection of euthanasiaÃ¢â¬ as stated by Robert Young, the author of Med ically Assisted Death. In the case of euthanasia, many people will argue that it is murder, butRead MorePersuasive Essay On Euthanasia737 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageswith no hope of ever leaving their hospital bed, death may seem like a blessing. Euthanasia is the practise of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain or suffering, a practise which is yet to be legalised in too many countries for being seen as illegal and immoral-which is ridiculous. A terminally ill patient or those suffering from deteriorating progressive conditions should always have the option of euthanasia. If possible, everyone would choose a quick and dignified death when the time comesRead MorePersuasive Essay On Euthanasia730 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Euthanasia is sometimes referred to a Ã¢â¬Å"mercy killing.Ã¢â¬ This controversial topic has been debated for decades. Some argue that euthanasia causes more harm than good, and with modern medicine it is simply unnecessary. Others argue that it is an act of mercy sparing a suffering individual from days, weeks, or months of unnecessary pain and anguish. However, there are moral and ethical questions surrounding euthanasia. It could be argued that killing of any kind is murder. No matter the situation orRead MoreEuthanasia Persuasive Essay1577 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespainful clutch. Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are two ways to end the life of a person. Euthanasia is the act or practice of killing or permitting the death of hopelessly sick or injured individuals (as persons or domestic animals) in a relatively painless way for reasons of mercy (Merriam-Webster), also defined by the Oxford dictionary as the painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and pai nful disease or in an irreversible coma. In places where euthanasia is allowed, it
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Absolute power corrupts absolutelyÃ¢â¬ ¦ unless, of course, your absolute power is a God-given right. The iconic tragedy Macbeth is arguably one of the most recognised literary works of William Shakespeare, centered on the idea of illegitimate power. Throughout the text, Shakespeare explores the destructive nature of power through various representations and characters, conveying an unceasing struggle for power amongst the main protagonists that causes devastating consequences. Though Shakespeare conveys many different representations regarding the nature of power and the way it operates throughout Macbeth, in particular he represents power as a divine right with which one should not tamper, in order to avoid disaster. Written during the seventeenth century when belief in a divine-ordained hierarchy prevailed, this representation of illegitimate power acted as the driving force of the play and distinctly reflects certain socio-cultural views of the era. It was thought during this ti me that if monarchial power was gained through illegitimate means, destruction of the mind and state would result; Shakespeare foregrounds the idea that if one does indeed tamper with the divinity of power, the resulting control will be fleeting. This interpretation subsequently allowed the audience to anticipate MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s usurper of the Scottish throne to ultimately lead to a collective pain, loss and suffering. Whilst examining the play Macbeth, the representation of illegitimate power will beShow MoreRelatedThe Tragic Tragedy Of Macbeth By William Shakespeare770 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTragic plays involve the fall of one or more characters, specifically the main character, and causes a viewer to feel sorrow, pity, or similar feelings for them. Of Antigone and Macbeth, Macbeth is the more tragic of the two because Macbeth overall includes more tragic events and creates a greater atmosphere of pity and sorrow, especially in the introduction and middle of the plays, than Antig one features. At first, while both plays are building up the beginnings of tragedy, MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s greater shareRead MoreThe Tragic Hero Of Macbeth By William Shakespeare1724 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA Greek philosopher named Aristotle once said, Tragedy is an imitation not of men but of a life, and actionÃ¢â¬ ¦. Aristotle is famous for his theory of tragedy. His definition of tragedy applies to William Shakespeare s play Macbeth. The play is about a hero who reaches a high position in the play and then falls because of his choices. Macbeth is a tragic hero according to Aristotle s aspects that make a tragedy. Macbeth is neither a villain nor a perfect character, he appears in the play in a highRead MoreGerald Deocariza Iii. Mrs. Jardine. English 3, Period 4.1161 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJardine English 3, Period 4 18 January 2017 The Shakespearean Ways of a Tragic Hero Do all villains everywhere start in a terribly dark life? No, some heroes become corrupted because of their abilities as heroes. These types of heroes become tragic heroes, who destine for a serious downfall and set as the protagonists of a dramatic tragedy. A tragic hero gets For example, William Shakespeare wrote a play called The Tragedy of Macbeth to show MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s uprisings and downfalls. MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall resultsRead MoreMacbeth as a Tragic Hero in William Shakespeares Play Essay935 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMacbeth as a Tragic Hero in William Shakespeares Play The play Ã¢â¬ËMacbethÃ¢â¬â¢ by William Shakespeare charts the rise and fall of the Scottish general Macbeth, through a tale of treachery, deceit and death. First performed in 1606 Ã¢â¬ËMacbethÃ¢â¬â¢ is inspired by a story of the Scottish monarchy. A tragic hero is one who at the outset is not wholly good or bad but has a character fault that causes them to make tragic mistakes resulting in their eventual downfall. Ã¢â¬ËMacbethÃ¢â¬â¢ is a renaissanceRead MoreWhat Are The Similarities Between Macbeth And Othello1267 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWilliam Shakespeare is the playwright in which the works of Macbeth and Othello are written . These works are both written in Shakespeares signature style of tragedy where a character experiences a reversal of fortune at the hands of their own actions. A true tragic hero is a character who is admired while being flawed; has both good and evil characteristics; experiences a hamartia, a moral mistake or ignorant error; is given an opportunity for redemption yet continues refusing; experiences theRead MoreEssay on Shakespeares Macbeth - The Tragic Hero717 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMacbeth - The Tragic Hero Ã Ã Ã Ã Every true Elizabethan Tragedy comes complete with a tragic hero.Ã The tragedy Macbeth, written by William Shakespeare, has a perfect example of a tragic hero, otherwise known as Macbeth.Ã A tragic hero must be a man who is great and admirable in various ways.Ã He should be placed in society in such a way that everything he does affects all of the members of his society.Ã A tragic hero should at some point reach the top of FortuneÃ¢â¬â¢s Wheel, but land upRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Macbeth By William Shakespeare1205 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe first tragic story created in ancient Greece. Tragedies were written as a form of catharsis or purgation of emotions. In these types of plays, the audience finds characters in which they can relate to which is a tragic hero. The tragic hero creates his own failures based upon their own actions and produces a detrimental fate for himself. The process of the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s fall is based upon the tragic structure . The structure of a tragedy consists of the exposition, exciting force, hamartia, theRead MoreEssay on Shakespeares Macbeth is a Tragic Hero956 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMacbeth is a Tragic HeroÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Shakespeares tragic hero is a man of noble birth who falls from a position of honor and respect due to a flaw in his character. He freely chooses a course of action which ultimately causes him suffering and brings him to a fatal end.(Campbell 129) Macbeth is the epitome of a tragic hero who rises high then falls rock bottom to his death. Macbeth, once a noble man, follows the advice of witches, finds himself King, abuses his power and then gets killedRead MoreEssay on Definitions of a Tragedy: Shakespeares and Aristotles1182 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn writing a tragedy, there are certain standards and guidelines to which an author or playwright must follow. One such standard is the Aristotelian definition of tragedy and the tragic hero. William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s The Tragedy of Macbeth is a perfect mold of an Aristotelian Tragedy. It displays all eight aspects of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of tragedy. It is set mainly in Scotland, but briefly in England during the ele venth century. It illuminates the ideal plot, in which the action of the story, orRead MoreMacbeth Character Analysis953 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescan affect you in the long run and can easily contribute to a downfall. Macbeth was fully aware of the choices he made with the inhumane torture and disrespect he had on the citizens of Scotland. Being a tragic hero is when one experiences an immense tragedy which leads to a downfall, but Macbeth never had a tragedy because his death originated from the choices he made and reactions he had while he had authority as king. Macbeth being selfish and only caring about himself creates an undeserving and
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 1. Appeal to Force If you suppose that terrorizing your opponent is giving him a reason for believing that you are correct, then you are using a scare tactic and reasoning fallaciously. Example: David: My father owns the department store that gives your newspaper fifteen percent of all its advertising revenue, so IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t want to publish any story of my arrest for spray painting the college. We will write a custom essay sample on Types of Fallacies or any similar topic only for you Order Now Newspaper editor: Yes, David, I see your point. The story really isnÃ¢â¬â¢t newsworthy. David has given the editor a financial reason not to publish, but he has not given a relevant reason why the story is not newsworthy. DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s tactics are scaring the editor, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s the editor who commits the scare tactic fallacy, not David. David has merely used a scare tactic. This fallacyÃ¢â¬â¢s name emphasizes the cause of the fallacy rather than the error itself. 2. Appeal to Pity You commit the fallacy of appeal to emotions when someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s appeal to you to accept their claim is accepted merely because the appeal arouses your feelings of anger, fear, grief, love, outrage, pity, pride, sexuality, sympathy, relief, and so forth. Example of appeal to relief from grief: [The speaker knows he is talking to an aggrieved person whose house is worth much more than $100,000. ] You had a great job and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve to lose it. I wish I could help somehow. I do have one idea. Now your family needs financial security even more. You need cash. I can help you. Here is a check for $100,000. Just sign this standard sales agreement, and we can skip the realtors and all the headaches they would create at this critical time in your life. There is nothing wrong with using emotions when you argue, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s a mistake to use emotions as the key premises or as tools to downplay relevant information. Regarding the fallacy ofÃ appeal to pity, it is proper to pity people who have had misfortunes, but if as the personÃ¢â¬â¢s history instructor you accept MaxÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that he earned an A on the history quiz because he broke his wrist while playing in your collegeÃ¢â¬â¢s last basketball game, then youÃ¢â¬â¢ve committed the fallacy ofÃ appeal to pity. *Appeal to Snobbery 3. Ad Hominem You commit this fallacy if you make an irrelevant attack on the arguer and suggest that this attack undermines the argument itself. It is a form of theÃ Genetic Fallacy. Example: What she says about Johannes KeplerÃ¢â¬â¢s astronomy of the 1600? s must be just so much garbage. Do you realize sheÃ¢â¬â¢s only fourteen years old? This attack may undermine the arguerÃ¢â¬â¢s credibility as a scientific authority, but it does not undermine her reasoning. That reasoning should stand or fall on the scientific evidence, not on the arguerÃ¢â¬â¢s age or anything else about her personally. If the fallacious reasoner points out irrelevant circumstances that the reasoner is in, the fallacy is a circumstantial ad hominem. Tu QuoqueÃ andÃ Two Wrongs Make a RightÃ are other types of the ad hominem fallacy. The major difficulty with labeling a piece of reasoning as an ad hominem fallacy is deciding whether the personal attack is relevant. For example, attacks on a person for their actually immoral sexual conduct are irrelevant to the quality of their mathematical reasoning, but they are relevant to arguments promoting the person for a leadership position in the church. Unfortunately, many attacks are not so easy to classify, such as an attack pointing out that the candidate for church leadership, while in the tenth grade, intentionally tripped a fellow student and broke his collar bone. *Ad Hominem Circumstantial Guilt by association is a version of theÃ ad hominemÃ fallacy in which a person is said to be guilty of error because of the group he or she associates with. The fallacy occurs when we unfairly try to change the issue to be about the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s circumstances rather than about the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s actual argument. Also called Ã¢â¬Å"Ad Hominem, Circumstantial. Example: Secretary of State Dean Acheson is too soft on communism, as you can see by his inviting so many fuzzy-headed liberals to his White House cocktail parties. Has any evidence been presented here that AchesonÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are inappropriate in regards to communism? This sort of reasoning is an example of McCarthyism, the technique of smearing liberal Democrats that was so effectively used by the late Senator Joe McCarthy in the early 1950s. In fact, Acheson was strongly anti-communist and the architect of President TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s firm policy of containing Soviet power. 4. Appeal to the People If you suggest too strongly that someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s claim or argument is correct simply because itÃ¢â¬â¢s what most everyone believes, then youÃ¢â¬â¢ve committed the fallacy of appeal to the people. Similarly, if you suggest too strongly that someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s claim or argument is mistaken simply because itÃ¢â¬â¢s not what most everyone believes, then youÃ¢â¬â¢ve also committed the fallacy. Agreement with popular opinion is not necessarily a reliable sign of truth, and deviation from popular opinion is not necessarily a reliable sign of error, but if you assume it is and do so with enthusiasm, then youÃ¢â¬â¢re guilty of committing this fallacy. It is essentially the same as the fallacies of ad numerum, appeal to the gallery, appeal to the masses, argument from popularity, argumentum ad populum, common practice, mob appeal, past practice, peer pressure, traditional wisdom. The Ã¢â¬Å"too stronglyÃ¢â¬ mentioned above is important in the description of the fallacy because what most everyone believes is, for that reason, somewhat likely to be true, all things considered. However, the fallacy occurs when this degree of support is overestimated. Example: You should turn to channel 6. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the most watched channel this year. This is fallacious because of its implicitly accepting the questionable premise that the most watched channel this year is, for that reason alone, the best channel for you. If you stress the idea of appealing to aÃ newÃ idea of the gallery, masses, mob, peers, people, and so forth, then it is a bandwagon fallacy. *Bandwagon If you suggest that someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s claim is correct simply because itÃ¢â¬â¢s what most everyone is coming to believe, then youÃ¢â¬â¢re committing the bandwagon fallacy. Get up here with us on the wagon where the band is playing, and go where we go, and donÃ¢â¬â¢t think too much about the reasons. The Latin term for this fallacy of appeal to novelty is Argumentum ad Novitatem. Example: [Advertisement] More and more people are buying sports utility vehicles. IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t it time you bought one, too? [You commit the fallacy if you buy the vehicle solely because of this advertisement. ] Like its close cousin, the fallacy of appeal to the people, the bandwagon fallacy needs to be carefully distinguished from properly defending a claim by pointing out that many people have studied the claim and have come to a reasoned conclusion that it is correct. What most everyone believes is likely to be true, all things considered, and if one defends a claim on those grounds, this is not a fallacious inference. What is fallacious is to be swept up by the excitement of a new idea or new fad and to unquestionably give it too high a degree of your belief solely on the grounds of its new popularity, perhaps thinking simply that Ã¢â¬Ënew is better. Ã¢â¬â¢ The key ingredient that is missing from a bandwagon fallacy is knowledge that an item is popular because of its high quality. Appeal to Past People (Ã¢â¬Å"You tooÃ¢â¬ ) 5. Accident We often arrive at a generalization but donÃ¢â¬â¢t or canÃ¢â¬â¢t list all the exceptions. When we reason with the generalization as if it has no exceptions, we commit the fallacy of accident. This fallacy is sometimes called the Ã¢â¬Å"fallacy of sweeping generalization. Ã¢â¬ Example: People should keep their promises, right? I loaned Dwayne my knife, and he said heÃ¢â¬â¢d return it. Now he is refusi ng to give it back, but I need it right now to slash up my neighbors who disrespected me. People should keep their promises, but there are exceptions to this generaliztion as in this case of the psychopath who wants Dwayne to keep his promise to return the knife. 6. Straw Man You commit the straw man fallacy whenever you attribute an easily refuted position to your opponent, one that the opponent wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t endorse, and then proceed to attack the easily refuted position (the straw man) believing you have undermined the opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s actual position. If the misrepresentation is on purpose, then the straw man fallacy is caused by lying. Example (a debate before the city council): Opponent: Because of the killing and suffering of Indians that followed ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery of America, the City of Berkeley should declare that Columbus Day will no longer be observed in our city. Speaker: This is ridiculous, fellow members of the city council. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not true that everybody who ever came to America from another country somehow oppressed the Indians. I say we should continue to observe Columbus Day, and vote down this resolution that will make the City of Berkeley the laughing stock of the nation. The speaker has twisted what his opponent said; the opponent never said, nor even indirectly suggested, that everybody who ever came to America from another country somehow oppressed the Indians. The critical thinker will respond to the fallacy by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s get back to the original issue of whether we have a good reason to discontinue observing Columbus Day. Ã¢â¬ 7. Missing the Point The conclusion that is drawn is irrelevant to the premises; it misses the point. Example: In court, Thompson testifies that the defendant is a honorable person, who wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t harm a flea. The defense attorney commits the fallacy by rising to say that ThompsonÃ¢â¬â¢s testimony shows once again that his client was not near the murder scene. The testimony of Thompson may be relevant to a request for leniency, but it is irrelevant to any claim about the defendant not being near the murder scene. 8. Red Herring A red herring is a smelly fish that would distract even a bloodhound. It is also a digression that leads the reasoner off the track of considering only relevant information. Example: Will the new tax in Senate Bill 47 unfairly hurt business? One of the provisions of the bill is that the tax is higher for large employers (fifty or more employees) as opposed to small employers (six to forty-nine employees). To decide on the fairness of the bill, we must first determine whether employees who work for large employers have better working conditions than employees who work for small employers. Bringing up the issue of working conditions is the red herring. FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 9. Begging the Question A form ofÃ circular reasoningÃ in which a conclusion is derived from premises that presuppose the conclusion. Normally, the point of good reasoning is to start out at one place and end up somewhere new, namely having reached the goal of increasing the degree of reasonable belief in the conclusion. The point is to make progress, but in cases of begging the question there is no progress. Example: Ã¢â¬Å"Women have rights,Ã¢â¬ said the Bullfighters Association president. Ã¢â¬Å"But women shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fight bulls because a bullfighter is and should be a man. Ã¢â¬ The president is saying basically that women shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fight bulls because women shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fight bulls. This reasoning isnÃ¢â¬â¢t making any progress. Insofar as the conclusion of a deductively valid argument is Ã¢â¬Å"containedÃ¢â¬ in the premises from which it is deduced, this containing might seem to be a case of presupposing, and thus any deductively valid argument might seem to be begging the question. It is still an open question among logicians as to why some deductively valid arguments are considered to be begging the question and others are not. Some logicians suggest that, in informal reasoning with a deductively valid argument, if the conclusion is psychologically new insofar as the premises are concerned, then the argument isnÃ¢â¬â¢t an example of the fallacy. Other logicians suggest that we need to look instead to surrounding circumstances, not to the psychology of the reasoner, in order to assess the quality of the argument. For example, we need to look to the reasons that the reasoner used to accept the premises. Was the premise justified on the basis of accepting the conclusion? A third group of logicians say that, in deciding whether the fallacy is committed, we need more. We must determine whether any premise that is key to deducing the conclusion is adopted rather blindly or instead is a reasonable assumption made by someone accepting their burden of proof. The premise would here be termed reasonable if the arguer could defend it independently of accepting the conclusion that is at issue. 10. Complex Question You commit this fallacy when you frame a question so that some controversial presupposition is made by the wording of the question. Example: [ReporterÃ¢â¬â¢s question] Mr. President: Are you going to continue your policy of wasting taxpayerÃ¢â¬â¢s money on missile defense? The question unfairly presumes the controversial claim that the policy really is a waste of money. The fallacy of complex question is a form of begging the question. 11. False Dichotomy A reasoner who unfairly presents too few choices and then implies that a choice must be made among this short menu of choices commits the false dilemma fallacy, as does the person who accepts this faulty reasoning. Example: I want to go to Scotland from London. I overheard McTaggart say there are two roads to Scotland from London: the high road and the low road. I expect the high road would be too risky because itÃ¢â¬â¢s through the hills and that means dangerous curves. But itÃ¢â¬â¢s raining now, so both roads are probably slippery. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t like either choice, but I guess I should take the low road and be safer. This would be fine reasoning is you were limited to only two roads, but youÃ¢â¬â¢ve falsely gotten yourself into a dilemma with such reasoning. There are many other ways to get to Scotland. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t limit yourself to these two choices. You can take other roads, or go by boat or train or airplane. The fallacy is called the Ã¢â¬Å"False Dichotomy FallacyÃ¢â¬ when the unfair menu contains only two choices. Think of the unpleasant choice between the two as being a charging bull. By demanding other choices beyond those on the unfairly limited menu, you thereby Ã¢â¬Å"go between the hornsÃ¢â¬ of the dilemma, and are not gored. 12. Suppressed Evidence Intentionally failing to use information suspected of being relevant and significant is committing the fallacy of suppressed evidence. This fallacy usually occurs when the information counts against oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own conclusion. Perhaps the arguer is not mentioning that experts have recently objected to one of his premises. The fallacy is a kind of fallacy ofÃ Selective Attention. Example: Buying the Cray Mac 11 computer for our company was the right thing to do. It meets our companyÃ¢â¬â¢s needs; it runs the programs we want it to run; it will be delivered quickly; and it costs much less than what we had budgeted. This appears to be a good argument, but youÃ¢â¬â¢d change your assessment of the argument if you learned the speaker has intentionally suppressed the relevant evidence that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s Cray Mac 11 was purchased from his brother-in-law at a 30 percent higher price than it could have been purchased elsewhere, and if you learned that a recent unbiased analysis of ten comparable computers placed the Cray Mac 11 near the bottom of the list. FALLACIES OF WEAK INDUCTION 13. Appeal to Ignorance The fallacy of appeal to ignorance comes in two forms: (1) Not knowing that a certain statement is true is taken to be a proof that it is false. 2) Not knowing that a statement is false is taken to be a proof that it is true. The fallacy occurs in cases where absence of evidence is not good enough evidence of absence. The fallacy uses an unjustified attempt to shift the burden of proof. The fallacy is also called Ã¢â¬Å"Argument from Ignorance. Ã¢â¬ Example: Nobody has ever proved to me thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a God, so I know there is no God. This kind of reasoning is generally fallacious. It would be proper reasoning only if the proof attempts were quite thorough, and it were the case that if God did exist, then there would be a discoverable proof of this. Another common example of the fallacy involves ignorance of a future event: People have been complaining about the danger of Xs ever since they were invented, but thereÃ¢â¬â¢s never been any big problem with them, so thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing to worry about. 14. Appeal to Unqualified Authority You appeal to authority if you back up your reasoning by saying that it is supported by what some authority says on the subject. Most reasoning of this kind is not fallacious, and much of our knowledge properly comes from listening to authorities. However, appealing to authority as a reason to believe somethingÃ isÃ fallacious whenever the authority appealed to is not really an authority in this particular subject, when the authority cannot be trusted to tell the truth, when authorities disagree on this subject (except for the occasional lone wolf), when the reasoner misquotes the authority, and so forth. Although spotting a fallacious appeal to authority often requires some background knowledge about the subject or the authority, in brief it can be said that it is fallacious to accept the words of a supposed authority when we should be suspicious of the authorityÃ¢â¬â¢s words. Example: The moon is covered with dust because the president of our neighborhood association said so. This is a fallacious appeal to authority because, although the president is an authority on many neighborhood matters, you are given no reason to believe the president is an authority on the composition of the moon. It would be better to appeal to some astronomer or geologist. A TV commercial that gives you a testimonial from a famous film star who wears a Wilson watch and that suggests you, too, should wear that brand of watch is committing a fallacious appeal to authority. The film star is an authority on how to act, not on which watch is best for you. 15. Hasty Generalization A hasty generalization is a fallacy ofÃ jumping to conclusionsÃ in which the conclusion is a generalization. See alsoÃ Biased Statistics. Example: IÃ¢â¬â¢ve met two people in Nicaragua so far, and they were both nice to me. So, all people I will meet in Nicaragua will be nice to me. In any hasty generalization the key error is to overestimate the strength of an argument that is based on too small a sample for the implied confidence level or error margin. In this argument about Nicaragua, using the word Ã¢â¬Å"allÃ¢â¬ in the conclusion implies zero error margin. With zero error margin youÃ¢â¬â¢d need to sample every single person in Nicaragua, not just two people. 16. False Cause Improperly concluding that one thing is a cause of another. The Fallacy of Non Causa Pro Causa is another name for this fallacy. Its four principal kinds are theÃ Post Hoc Fallacy, the Fallacy ofÃ Cum Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc,Ã theÃ RegressionÃ Fallacy, and the Fallacy ofÃ Reversing Causation. Example: My psychic adviser says to expect bad things when Mars is aligned with Jupiter. Tomorrow Mars will be aligned with Jupiter. So, if a dog were to bite me tomorrow, it would be because of the alignment of Mars with Jupiter. 17. Slippery Slope Suppose someone claims that a first step (in a chain of causes and effects, or a chain of reasoning) will probably lead to a second step that in turn will probably lead to another step and so on until a final step ends in trouble. If the likelihood of the trouble occurring is exaggerated, the slippery slope fallacy is committed. Example: Mom: Those look like bags under your eyes. Are you getting enough sleep? Jeff: I had a test and stayed up late studying. Mom: You didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take any drugs, did you? Jeff: Just caffeine in my coffee, like I always do. Mom: Jeff! You know what happens when people take drugs! Pretty soon the caffeine wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be strong enough. Then you will take something stronger, maybe someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s diet pill. Then, something even stronger. Eventually, you will be doing cocaine. Then you will be a crack addict! So, donÃ¢â¬â¢t drink that coffee. The form of a slippery slope fallacy looks like this: A leads to B. B leads to C. C leads to D. Ã¢â¬ ¦ Z leads to HELL. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to go to HELL. So, donÃ¢â¬â¢t take that first step A. 18. Weak Analogy The problem is that the items in the analogy are too dissimilar. When reasoning by analogy, the fallacy occurs when the analogy is irrelevant or very weak or when there is a more relevant disanalogy. See alsoÃ Faulty Comparison. Example: The bookÃ Investing for DummiesÃ really helped me understand my finances better. The bookChess for DummiesÃ was written by the same author, was published by the same press, and costs about the same amount. So, this chess book would probably help me understand my finances, too. FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 19. Accent The accent fallacy is a fallacy of ambiguity due to the different ways a word is emphasized or accented. Example: A member of Congress is asked by a reporter if she is in favor of the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s new missile defense system, and she responds, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m in favor of a missile defense system that effectively defends America. Ã¢â¬ With an emphasis on the word Ã¢â¬Å"favor,Ã¢â¬ her response is likely toÃ favorÃ the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s missile defense system. With an emphasis, instead, on the words Ã¢â¬Å"effectively defends,Ã¢â¬ her remark is likely to beÃ againstthe PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s missile defense system. And by using neither emphasis, she can later claim that her response was on either side of the issue. AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s version of the fallacy of accent allowed only a shift in which syllable is accented within a word. 20. Amphiboly This is an error due to taking a grammatically ambiguous phrase in two different ways during the reasoning. Example: In a cartoon, two elephants are driving their car down the road in India. They say, Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢d better not get out here,Ã¢â¬ as they pass a sign saying: ELEPHANTS PLEASE STAY IN YOUR CAR Upon one interpretation of the grammar, the pronoun Ã¢â¬Å"YOURÃ¢â¬ refers to the elephants in the car, but on another it refers to those humans who are driving cars in the vicinity. UnlikeÃ equivocation, which is due to multiple meanings of a phrase, amphiboly is due to syntactic ambiguity, ambiguity caused by multiple ways of understanding the grammar of the phrase. 21. Equivocation Equivocation is the illegitimate switching of the meaning of a term during the reasoning. Example: Brad is a nobody, but since nobody is perfect, Brad must be perfect, too. The term Ã¢â¬Å"nobodyÃ¢â¬ changes its meaning without warning in the passage. So does the term Ã¢â¬Å"political jokesÃ¢â¬ in this joke: I donÃ¢â¬â¢t approve of political jokes. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen too many of them get elected. FALLACIES OF GRAMMATICAL ANALOGY 22. Composition The composition fallacy occurs when someone mistakenly assumes that a characteristic of some or all the individuals in a group is also a characteristic of the group itself, the group Ã¢â¬Å"composedÃ¢â¬ of those members. It is the converse of theÃ divisionÃ fallacy. Example: Each human cell is very lightweight, so a human being composed of cells is also very lightweight. 23. Division Merely because a group as a whole has a characteristic, it often doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t follow that individuals in the group have that characteristic. If you suppose that it does follow, when it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t, you commit the fallacy of division. It is the converse of theÃ compositionÃ fallacy. Example: JoshuaÃ¢â¬â¢s soccer team is the best in the division because it had an undefeated season and shared the division title, so Joshua, who is their goalie, must be the best goalie in the division. 24. Figure of Speech or Parallel-word Construction A fallacy characterized by ambiguities due to the fact that different words in Greek (and in Latin) may have different cases or genders even though the case endings or gender endings are the same. Since this is not widespread in other languages or since it coincides with other fallacies (e. g. quivocation, see above) writers tend to interpret it very broadly. Examples: Ã¢â¬Å"Activists have been labeled as idealists, sadists, anarchists, communists, and just about any name that can come to mind ending inÃ -ist, likeÃ samok-ist, saba-ist, bad-ist,Ã and of course, who could forgetdevil-ist? Ã¢â¬ (The writer has the unsaid argument that any name ending inÃ -istÃ is viewe d as Ã¢â¬Å"trouble-makersÃ¢â¬ by our society. ) An introductory book on philosophy has an appendix entitle Ã¢â¬Å"List of IsmsÃ¢â¬ the proceeds to list the schools of thought in philosophy. (Not all words that end inÃ -ismÃ is a school of thought: take for example,Ã syllogism. ) How to cite Types of Fallacies, Essay examples
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Research on Legos Foreign Market Strategy. Answer: Lego Company or the Lego Group, owned by a Danish family is based in Billund, Denmark. Ole Kirk Christiansen founded the company and is best known for the manufacture of Lego-brand toys consisting mostly of interlocking plastic bricks and it operates several retail stores and amusement parks. The initial strategy of LEGO was to provide packing facilities and being responsive to the arrival of demands for orders. LEGO aimed to improve the production and packing facilities continuously. It was only due to the companys effective setup that they managed to supply orders to others (Andersen, Kragh and Lettl 2013). The organisational structure of the company required heavy scrutiny of internal consultants consisting of logistic managers, financial managers as well as marketing employees (Antorini, Muiz and Askildsen 2012). The strategy of the company received a major change after the entry of Knudstorp. The company aims to make a global impact and allows the management of businesses according follow the principles aimed at creating value to the stakeholders (euromonitor.com.2017). Moreover, LEGO is a subscriber to the United Nations Global Compact since 2003. The staffing policy of LEGO consists of appointing candidates who can succinctly answer the queries of the customers and understand the detailed description of their orders. The staffs are hired based on their ability to meet the requirements and the necessary job skills. Therefore, potential employee testing and social skills are also tested (Feloni 2014). Being continually focussed on driving growth, the company even manufactures Childrens wear, movie concepts, books and TV ideas are even incorporated. The innovative ideas has helped it gain extensive sales margins and the demands rates catapulted to huge heights that the company contemplated lowering of its sales (Marketline.com 2016). The companys production is pre-occupied in the core market and detailed focus is made on innovative product development which has led to a massive success lately. The areas of production being close to the core markets topographically, helped the company respond to the demand from consumers and customers alike. The subsidiaries of LEGO performed exceedingly well thus helping Legos growth. The companys expectations for robust growth were met in more than ten successive years (Schlagwein and Bjrn-Andersen 2014). The LEGO Group has an organisational complexity which is flat and has a divisional configuration. The tasks and their appointments were divided into various groups reporting to the top managers in the respective divisions or teams. The company aims to maintain its position as a top company and hence adopts the Defender mentality. The key developments that led LEGO towards its dominance in the global market include the cutting of costs. This has given the company importance to the educational toy image, from an effective strategy to increase sales. LEGO focussed on toys, not only to concentrate on the learning aspect but also on the recreational value. The company has always evolved its policies according to the needs of children all around the world (Antorini, Muiz Jr and Askildsen 2012). Several marketing strategies has reported for its success. These include long term business planning, strategic partnerships and joint ventures, the organic growth through the development of new products (LEGO 2013). Other areas that the company focuses are market segmentation, positioning and targeting policy while scaling the emerging market growth (Frick, Tardini and Cantoni, 2014). It can be recommended that the customers should be more involved with the company and help promote brand loyalty. It should also engage staff to make the company more socially active. Thus, it can be concluded that the story of LEGO is extremely inspiring for the competitors as well as other companies who are striving for global recognition and enhancing their importance across the globe. References: Andersen, P.H., Kragh, H. and Lettl, C., 2013. Spanning organizational boundaries to manage creative processes: The case of the LEGO group.Industrial Marketing Management,42(1), pp.125-134. Antorini, Y.M., Muiz Jr, A.M. and Askildsen, T., 2012. Collaborating with customer communities: Lessons from the LEGO Group.MIT Sloan Management Review,53(3), p.73. euromonitor.com. (2017).Euromonitor International. [online] Available at: https://http//: www.euromonitor.com [Accessed 31 Jul. 2017]. Feloni, R., 2014, How Lego Came Back From the Brink of Bankruptcy [online] Available at: https://www.businessinsider.com/how-lego-made-a-huge-turnaround-2014-2 [ACCESSED 24 July 2017] Frick, E.L.I.S.A.B.E.T.T.A., Tardini, S.T.E.F.A.N.O. and Cantoni, L.O.R.E.N.Z.O., 2014. LEGO SERIOUS PLAY applications to enhance creativity in participatory design.Creativity in Business. Research Papers on Knowledge, Innovation and Enterprise,2, pp.200-210. LEGO 2013, OUR MISSION: TO INSPIRE AND DEVELP THE BUILDERS OF TOMORROW. [Online] Available at: https://www.lego.com/en-us/aboutus/news-room/2013/february/annual-result-2012 [Accessed 25 July 2017] LEGO SERIOUS PLAY applications to enhance creativity in participatory design.Creativity in Business. Research Papers on Knowledge, Innovation and Enterprise,2, pp.200-210. Marketline.com, 2016. COMPANY PROFILE The LEGO Group Available at https://www.marketline.com[Accessed 25 July 2017] Schlagwein, D. and Bjrn-Andersen, N., 2014. Organizational learning with crowdsourcing: The revelatory case of LEGO.Journal of the Association for Information Systems,15(11), p.754.